Luxemburg

Constitution: Constitutional monarchy.

National holiday: Grand Duke's Birthday, June 23.

Nature and climate: A hilly land in central western Europe, between Germany, Belgium and France. 30% of the country is forested.
Average temperature in January 0C and in July 18C.
Percipitation between 700 and 800 mm.

People: Basically Celtic with French and German blend. Approximately25% of the population are resident workers from abroad.

Economy: During the 20th century steelworks have been the main industry, but since the international steelcrises in the mid 1970:s the importance of financial services have increased and is now of greater importance. In the early 1980:s the Luxembourg-based steel giant Arbed accounted for 20% of GDP. Since 1948 Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands have a customs union, the Benelux. Luxembourg was one of the six founding members of the EU.

History: Duchy within the Holy Roman Empire from the 9th century. In the 14th and 15th centuries many of the duchies from Luxembourg became German emperors. From 1354 Grandduchy and it 1444 became a part of Burgundy. Grandduchy under the Habsburg dynasty between 1477 and 1794 and under French sovereignty between 1794 and 1815.
In 1815 united with the Netherlands and a member of the German League.
From 1830 a part of Belgium and an independent grandduchy from 1839.
Occupied by German troops in World War I and World War II.